3DTransVidia Translates and Repairs Common Errors
Created in Different CAD Systems
3DTransVidia supports wide range of data formats including native CATIA V4, CATIA V5, Siemens NX, CREO/Pro/E, Autodesk, SolidWorks, STEP, IGES, ACIS, ParaSolid, to name a few. It also provides full access to MBD (Model Base Definition) from native CAD models including annotation, GD&T and PMI without another costly CAD license.
Automatic repair & correction of most common errors in the 3D CAD model definition are included. Automatic corrections can be made within the model tolerance, preventing potential model deformation. Specialized manual repair tools also provide an option to the workflow for more complex repair. This allows the user to identify and correct difficult or seemingly impossible errors in a CAD data model. High quality CAD data formats can also be transformed into any other CAD data format directly allowing full compatibility with receiving CAD/CAM system without expensive CAD IMPORT CONVERTERS.
3DTransVidia is designed to translate and repair 3D models created in different CAD systems. The repair process is automatic and can be applied to most complex 3D models and assemblies. The repair is always performed within the model tolerance maintaining the original model integrity and preventing model deformations.
3DTransVidia is also an ultimate solution for repair of existing 3D CAD models. Using native CAD systems is expensive (requires multiple systems seats to cover different formats), difficult (special CAD skills) and time consuming (hours, days, weeks) as CAD systems are simply not designed to repair existing CAD models. With 3D TransVidia the same work can be accomplished quickly, precisely and without any frustration.
CAD models often lack quality and precision required by the complex engineering processes (CAD -> CAM -> CMM). The geometrical and topological flaws are main obstacles in data translation. Complex CAD operations as model re-scaling, offsetting or Boolean operations are impossible to perform on invalid models. Repairs in native CAD system are in general difficult and time consuming.
3DTransVidia Provides Precise CAD Data Translation for
Multi-Vendor CAD/CAM Environments
Precise CAD Data Translation
3DTransVidia offers precise CAD data translation for multi-vendor CAD/CAM environments ensuring full CAD data integrity. Both native and neutral data formats are supported.
Repair of Existing CAD Models
The repair is performed within a specified model tolerance without changing or deforming the original model. Even an inexperienced CAD user will complete the repair within very short time. The automatic repair resolves over 70 typical geometry and topology conflicts. The automatic repair is complemented by manual repair places impossible to fix automatically as resolving those problems could change or deform the original model. The 3D CAD data integrity is always put on the first place. Manual changes are controlled by the user. The final result can always be validated using CompareVida application allowing comparing original model with translated derivative.
Automatic Repair Scheme
3DTransVidia supports different CAD data formats both native and neutral with either a parametric and/or triangulated representation.
Parametric CAD Representation
- Native CAD format (CATIA V5, CATIA V4, UGX, Pro/E, etc.)*
- Native CAD formats PMI (CATIA V5, Pro/E, UGX)*
- Neutral CAD format (STEP, IGES, VDA-FS, XML)
- Kernel CAD format (Parasolid, ACIS) *
Triangulated CAD Representation
- Neutral format (STL, VRML, .mesh, etc.)
Point Cloud Representation
- Neutral format (.asc, xyz point coordinates)
3DTransVidia automatically classifies types of errors remaining in the model after automatic repair and suggests a most suitable manual repair workflow. Problematic places are visible in the project tree and remain there until they are fixed. The repair parts are automatically merged with the rest of the model. The errors are classified into the following categories:
Error Classification Categories
- Open contours
- Untrimmed surfaces
- Mesh Gaps
- Mesh Open Edges
- Mesh Open Contours
- Mesh Overlaps
Manual repair has never been simpler. 3DTransVidia provides a workflow and special tools to easy and fast repair all remaining problems not possible to repair automatically. Faulty places together with their neighbors are isolated from the rest of the model. The user manipulates only on small part of the model instead of the whole model or complex assembly. There are specialized repair functions for fast and easy repair of the most complex problem.
Quality verification allows assessing the 3D model quality complainants to different international standards (VDA 4954, JAMA, SASIG PDQ Ver. 2.1, Boeing, PSA, etc.). The user can also use "User defined Criteria" reflecting quality requirements for a specific process the CAD model is subjected to such as: FEM analysis, manufacturing or long term CAD data archiving (ISO STEP EN 9100), etc.
Improving Original Model Definition
Provides functions to automatically recognize and convert complex geometry entities into an analytical geometric representation such as a plane, cylinder, sphere, cone, and surface of revolution. The resulting model becomes more compact (data storage) and "better defined". The analytical definition is better maintained through various interoperability processes.
Hybrid Model Representation
3DTransVidia supports coexistence of both parametric and triangulated representation in one project. Such a mixed 3D model representation is supported in STEP format and used in some applications. 3D TransVidia supports this kind of data structure and can be used to separate or convert into one single representation required by most common CAD/CAM systems. The mixed representation is usually not supported in standard systems.
Creating Consistent Triangulation
3DTransVidia allows the user to control and form watertight triangulated mesh geometry, smoothing or re-triangulation to specific criteria. In this way a perfect STL representation can be created without any inconsistencies as (self intersections, ledges, open contours, overlaps and gaps). This has a practical importance for correct operation of many applications requiring as input data STL format.
PMI, GD&T, Annotation
The Product Manufacturing Information (PMI) stored with a 3D model is now easily accessible from CATIA V5, UGX and Pro/E native files. PMI provide essential manufacturing information about tolerances, surface quality, tolerance for parallel walls or axis, etc. PMI information is displayed on the 3D model and accessible as individual entities from the project tree. You can activate/hide PMI layers, change the font type, alter the letter size, edit and format dimensions (size, letter type, etc.) and print the PMI information together with the 3D model for documentation purposes. The 3DTransVidia supports also PMI information stored in the neutral STEP AP 203 ED2 data format.
The patch division process finds automatically the optimal mesh division into patches suitable for conversion into parametric surfaces (NURBS). A feature recognition algorithm is used to automatically identify mesh parts convertible into analytical forms such as planes, cylinders, SOR (surface of revelation), sphere, torus, and cones. Those patches will be converted into analytically defined parametric surfaces. The remaining patches are converted into NURBS. The amount of patches is controlled and will depend on the specified accuracy for the reverse engineering process. The accuracy is controlled on the patch boarders and in the middle of each patch by measuring the deviation between resulting NURBS surface and original triangulation. 3D TransVidia ensures creation of parametric patches fitting with each other and forming water tight solids (B-Reps) in the CAD system.
Reverse engineering offers various tools for point clouds registration and fitting with each other. You can join mesh with point cloud, point cloud with other point cloud, change the transformation (rotation & translation) and reverse point cloud into a mesh. Number of points can be reduced by rejecting duplicated points within a user defined tolerance and other decimation criteria. Reverse engineering results can be overlaid with the original triangulation and point cloud to verify the results.
3DTransVidia Utilizes Industry-Standard CAD Library Licensing Maintaining Complete Data Integrity Throughout the CAD Translation Import Process
The CAD model is translated into 3DTransVidia (using specific CAD data translators) and parsed into the internal Capvidia XML format (which mimics original kernel entity definition and data structure). Once the model is in our data structure the repair & healing functions can be called to perform model validation and repair operations. The automatic repair process is controlled and performed within the model tolerance guaranteeing that the original model is not altered or deformed in this process.
Typical 3DTransVidia Workflow
- Data Import
- Tolerance Control
- Model Preview
- Diagnostics and Error Classification
- Automatic Repair & Healing
- Forming Solids (B-REP)
- Manual Repair
- Accessing PMI (Product Manufacturing Information), GD&T and FTA from native CATIA V5
- Model Simplification
- Data Export
- Batch Processing
To ensure correct data translation we use native CAD libraries license form Dassault Systems Spatial (InterOp) to read native CAD data formats. Libraries used for reading the neutral data formats such as IGES and STEP are developed by Capvidia. This gives us flexibility to quickly support new standards and new extensions such as the new STEP AP 203 E2 format extension.
CAD data formats supported by 3DTransVidia:
- CATIA V4 (.model, .exp / up to 4.2.4)
- CATIA V5 (.CATPart, CATProduct / up to R21)
- CATIA V5 PMI
- CATIA 2D (.IG2)
- Unigraphics (.prt / up to 18, NX6.0)
- Unigraphics PMI
- Pro/E (up to Wildfire 5)
- Pro/E Creo 1.0
- Pro/E PMI
- Inventor (up to 12)
- Parasolid (up to 21)
- IGES (5.x - 6.x)
- AutoForm (.af, .afm)
- Capvidia OpenXML
3DTransVidia automatically finds the right model tolerance value by verifying the size of all model entities, global model dimensions and few other parameters during reading the data. The user controls the model tolerance by choosing between the following options:
- File tolerance (value stored in the header of the file)
- Estimated tolerance (recommended default value)
- User defined tolerance (choice of the user)
Tolerance control gives the user capability to monitor and control the original model tolerance (most CAD system do not provide such an option). Choice of the tolerance has direct impact on the automatic repair process. In case of doubts you can try to read the model using different tolerance options to verify the results. Changing the tolerance can resolve in some translation issues so it is worth try. It will also give more inside about the original model and confidence that the translation has been done right.
3DTransVidia automatically identifies and classifies types of errors remaining in the model after the automatic repair. The errors are grouped in the project tree each with suggested (most suitable) manual repair workflow. Problematic places remain in the project tree until they are fixed. Each problem entity can be separated together with the neighbors and displayed different window, so you operate only on a small part of the model part, which greatly simplifies the most complex repairs. The repaired entity is automatically merged with the rest of the model.
- Open contours
- Untrimmed surfaces
- Open Edges
- Open Contours
A unique 3DTransVidia automatic repair & healing library is optimized to remove incompatibilities between different geometry kernels automatically. The original CAD model is not changed in the process. A strict control of the original model tolerance is applied into all repair processes. In this way we can guaranty that the original model stays within the original model tolerance even if it is moved to another CAD system. This is a very important capability for applications such as CAD data validation, CMM and CAM, where precise CAD definition needs to be maintained through the entire process.
3D TransVidia is based on Capvidia's proprietary kernel using precise representation concepts opposite to tolerant modeling kernels (Parasolid, ACIS, CATIA V5) trying to form solids independent from the original model quality. The tolerant modeling (is a powerful capability) developed with the objective to secure robustness of complex CAD operations. Boolean or other complex CAD operations can be difficult to perform in case the underlined 3D model mathematically representation is not completely correct so the model gets changed to comply with the limitations of the algorithms. This change may not be acceptable for the process 3D model is going to be submitted to. The precise kernels do not allow any approximate or topological changes to the original model, it the model is corrected the result has to comply with a strict mathematical formulation without any work-around.
Directing open contour
Closing open contour
Trimming un-trimmed surfaces
Trimming surfaces with the neigheboring contour
Surface fitting before
Surface fitting after
Surface self-intersection, before healing
An essential part of the repair & healing capabilities is a possibility to perform geometric and topologic sewing on the imported model. Through the sewing process we can find all model inconsistencies even if the topology information is not present in the original data (typical flat IGES structure). Combination of sewing technology with advanced repair & healing technology allows finding problems and correcting them automatically. Analyzing sewing results we can find and classify the following model inconsistencies:
- Gaps and overlaps
- Open contours
- Preferred loop presentation (2D/3D)
- Trimming problematic faces
- Optimal face mating
- Surface unification
- And more...
Before forming solid
After forming solid
3DTransVidia provides specialized proprietary repair functions (complementary to common CAD system) crucial for repair of existing CAD models.
Special manual repair functions:
- Surface creation
- Surface recreation
- Surface merging
- Surface trimming
- Surface splitting
- Surface fitting (gaps/overlaps eliminating)
- Gap diagnostics
- Open contour diagnostics
Detecting open contour
Working with the selected problems
The Product Manufacturing Information (PMI) stored with a 3D model is now easily accessible from CATIA V5, UGX and Pro/E native files. PMI provides essential manufacturing information about tolerances, surface quality, tolerance for parallel walls or axis, etc. PMI information is displayed on the 3D model and accessible from the project tree. You can activate/hide PMI layers, change the font type, alter the letter size, edit and format dimensions (size, letter type, etc.) and print the PMI information together with the 3D model for documentation purposes. The 3DTransVidia supports also PMI information stored in the neutral STEP AP 203 ED2 data format.
3DTransVidia provides functions to automatically recognize and convert complex geometry entities into an analytical geometric representation. The following types represented as a complex NURB or B-Spline surfaces can be converted into an analytical definition:
- Plane Surface
- Revolve Surface
- Ruled Surface
- Offset Surface
- Extrusion Surface
- Blend Surface
Before simplification - all surfaces defined as NURBS
After simplification - surfaces converted into analytical definition such as plane, surface revolve
- CATIA V4 (.model, .exp / 4.2.4)
- CATIA V5 (.CATPart, CATProduct / up to R20)
- Parasolid (up to 21)
- IGES (5.x - 6.x)
- AutoForm (.af, .afm)
- Capvidia OpenXML
3DTransVidia batch processing is designed to simplify and automate translation of large assemblies and multiple CAD data sets (e.g. large CATIA models). Batch processing is performed automatically. It is controlled from a single window managing the translation process, monitoring the progress, and analyzing results. Batch translation is fully autonomous and will automatically recover in case of an unexpected error or crash.
Die-design for Manufacturing of Automotive Body Panels
3D TransVidia is successfully used in the die design process in the automotive industry. An automotive body panel (created in CATIA V4) is visually "correct", but the underlined geometry formed usually by thousands of surfaces includes gaps, not trimmed surfaces, overlaps, intersections and topologic inconsistencies introduced by changes and modifications during the design process. To design a die, we need to intersect a solid metal block with the skin-panel. The success of this operation (in CATIA V5) is determined by the quality of the skin-panel. The smallest inconsistence in the model definition will prevent the CAD system to perform this operation. Manual repair is impractical as it may take hours or days (depending on the model complexity) and requires a highly skilled CAD designer to do the job. The repaired model has to be valid both for CATIA V4 and CATIA V5, which additionally complicates the repair process. The repair process in 3DVision starts from verification of the native V4 skin-panel quality followed by identification and classification of problems. Automatic repair corrects faulty entities and resolves kernels incompatibility (CATIA V4 and V5). All repairs are done within the original model tolerance without introduction of any deformations to the original design. Model entities impossible to repair automatically are separated and transferred into separate documents to simplify the repair process (complete model can be too heavy to smoothly operate on). 3D TransVidia specialized manual repair functions make the work easy and efficient. The whole process is completed within less than 90 minutes on a side body panel consisting of over 3.500 surfaces (native CATIA V4 model). The resulting model forms valid geometric and topologic skins in CATIA V4 and CATIA V5.
Creating Consistent Triangulation
Many CAD/CAM/CAE applications require as input data 3D model represented as consistent triangulation. 3D TransVidia can be used for repair of existing 3D mesh representations and improving the 3D mesh quality. It also can create consistent triangulation from a parametric model forming a well defined solid. The error detection and classification function finds all inconstancies as gaps, open edges, open contours, overlaps, intersections and self-intersections. First automatic repair tries to eliminate all issues automatically on the tolerance specified by the user. Remaining problems (requiring larger changes than tolerance) will be left for manual repair operations. A simple work-flow is provided to quickly and efficiently deal with those problems. You can delete edges, triangles and vertexes and create new vertexes, edges and triangles. In this way the entire model representation can be converted into consistent (water tight) 3D representation. This step is necessary for successful stereo lithography process (rapid prototyping), CAM application (NC path generation engines take as input triangulated representation) or reverse engineering converting triangulated model into parametric 3D NURBS representation.
The existing triangulation can change by minimizing the amount of triangles to minimum without changing the original model shape. You can choose parameters controlling the re-triangulation process by formalizing maximum allowed deformation criteria (tolerance) or percentage of change in amount of triangles (can result in original model deformations).
Model simplification is applicable if we deal with parametric NURBS data including many analytical entities as planes, cylinders, spheres, etc. represented in form of NURBS. The over ambiguous model representation can result from a CAD system or data translation. Old generation CAD/CAM systems or low level CAD translators relay often on the NURBS representation. With 3D TransVidia we can automatically detect underlined canonic representation and convert such an entity into well defined analytical representation. The benefit of this operation lighter data files and robust definition for advanced CAD operations and further interoperability. The conversion process is performed at the original model tolerance, which ensures that the model representation is changed without introduction of geometric deformations. This process as all other processes changing the original 3D model definition should be subject to validation procedures (see CompareVidia product line and Boeing D6-51991). Validation procedure is to ensure the compliments of the 3D model derivative with its origin.
Feature Extraction – Recreation of CAD Model
To simplify 3D model recreation in a CAD system we can use parts of existing "dummy" B-Rep representation. Reading an existing 3D model into 3D TransVidia will result in creation of correct and precise representation corresponding with the origin. In case the objective is to recreate a 3D model in a CAD system to obtain fully feature based representation we can re-use parts of the B-Rep in 3D TransVidia for this process. 3D TransVidia provides an access to all model entities both geometry as topology. In this way we can select necessary construction elements as edges, contours or surfaces and use them for creating features in the CAD system instead of recreating the basic elements from scratch. This is a very easy and efficient way to quickly and accurately re-create a feature based CAD model. We can also use cross sections of the B-Rep to construct features through rotation or extrusion to get solid parts in the CAD system. In this way we avoid possible mistakes in defining basic design elements as we simply import them from an existing model. This method has been efficiently used for re-mastering of complex 3D models with a great success. The re-created model can be checked against the original B-Rep representation using CompareVidia application.
Converting Flat IGES/STEP into Structured Assembly
The neural format as STEP and IGES often includes unstructured information about the 3D model. The original document structure has been lost in the translation process or has been removed when writing the data into neutral representation. This kind of data is difficult to use, it slow down CAD system performance and can be difficult to interpret. 3D TransVidia can be a solution. Using different filtering capabilities (based on colors, names, attributes or entity type) user can easily bring back the structure into the data. Grouping the entities and organizing them in the project tree one can recreate original assembly division by grouping separate entities into logically linked objects. The data becomes more readable and easier to interpret.
CATIA V4 to V5 Conversion
Resolving CAD kernels incompatibilities is a difficult task. A typical example can be conversion of legacy CATIA V4 data into CATIA V5. The challenges come from differences in the geometric kernels, definition of model tolerance, differences in data structure and entity definition. All that will create a data loss during the conversion (from 0% to 90%) if done without correct tools. The percentage loss can be minimized by using 3D TransVidia offering all necessary repair & healing tools to eliminate the differences and successfully translate the data from CATIA V4 to CATIA V5. The process involves automatic translation, followed by error check and easy to use manual repair workflow employing specialized repair functions (surface recreation, surface fitting, surface merging, forming solid, etc.). The process can be also run in batch using special 3D TransVidia Batch module. Validation is recommended to make sure that original and translated model are the same and there is no information loss or model change introduced in the process (see also CompareVida validation tools).
Reverse engineering starts form collection of point cloud with a scanner. The industry tendency is to collect more and more point so projects with 100 million points are not any more exceptions. The first challenge is to deal with point data collected from different scenes and putting it into one single project. Managing this amount of data can be difficult and may call for large amount of memory. We are addressing both issues with the new releases of the software and plan to have a solution shortly. After joining mesh (from different scenes) the point cloud is converted into a triangulation (mesh). Number of points can be reduced by rejecting duplicated points within a user defined tolerance and other decimation criteria. Further the triangulation process is controlled by number of parameters defining the resulting mesh quality. You control minimum triangle angle, dihedral angle and boundary definition all within specified absolute tolerance. The resulting mesh can be further analyze to form water tight volume (sewing) and edited on a level of single triangle definition (edges, vertexes) as well as global functions such as automatic holes filling. Mesh can be smooth using various criteria (mean filtering, angle median filtering or Laplasian flow) or simplified to target amount of triangles (%) or numerical tolerance (e.g. 0.005 mm).
The patch division runs automatically and finds optimal mesh division into patches. A feature recognition algorithm is used to automatically identify mesh parts convertible into analytical forms such as planes, cylinders, SOR (surface of revelation), sphere, torus, and cones. Those patches will be converted not to NURBS, but analytically defined parametric surfaces. The remaining patches are converted into NURBS. The amount of patches is controlled and will depend on the specified accuracy for the reverse engineering process. The accuracy is controlled on the patch boarders and in the middle of each patch by measuring the deviation between resulting NURBS surface and original triangulation. The objective is to produce patches fitting with each other and forming a water tight solid in the CAD system. Reverse engineering results can be overlaid with the original triangulation and point cloud to verify the results. Capvidia's reverse engineering technology is licensed and integrated into few commercial products provided by other companies (Materilise, ScanTools) it has also been used for all type of reverse engineering applications including free form parts, mechanical parts and combination of both. The application areas vary from medical to automotive mould design.
3DTransVidia Standalone – Single node locked product installation.
3DTransVidia Float – Floating installation for multiple users.
3DTransVidia Translation Client/Server is designed for multi-user configurations. The data translators supporting different CAD formats installed on the server. The translation results can be shared between different users (3DTransVidia Clients) from one central server. 3DTransVidia Client submits translation job to the server and on-line monitors translation status. The jobs are queued on the server. Each job can be given a priority. The higher the priority is the faster the results will be available. System administrator can monitor the server activities and priorities server access for different clients.
- 3DTransVidia Server is an ideal solution for large organizations requiring own central data translation capability. Data translation runs on a separate server, which can be configured in function of organization specific data translations needs (CAD formats, number of simultaneous users, local or remote access, security level.
- 3DTransVidia Client communicates with the server and controls data translation process. User can monitor translation progress and preview results in graphical window. The powerful preview capability allows visualizing native CAD data prior to the translation process. User can select parts of the model for translation by defining model entity name, using colours or simply picking parts directly on the 3D model.
- Integrated automatic repair & healing ensures correct data translation resolving all data format and geometric kernels incompatibilities. Powerful error classification and specialized manual repair tools provide easy to use work flow to solve the most complex CAD repair tasks difficult or impossible to conduct in a CAD system.
Verify 3D CAD Model Quality and Maintain Data Integrity Through Manufacturing
QVidia is an excellent tool to control 3D CAD model quality during the design process. Users start by choosing a suitable standard from common formats like VDA 4955, SAISIG, JAMA, AIAG, Boeing, Airbus, Audi, Renault, VW and Daimler-Chrysler, or their own quality criteria. Either way, QVidia uses pre-set design rules, giving the user uniform designs across the organization.
The strength in QVidia is it helps make designs compatible with the manufacturing processes. It also acts to improve data interoperability between processes and workflows sharing the same 3D CAD models. Using QVidia will lock design conformity across the organization, aid compatibility with manufacturing processes, and increase the global quality standard saving time and manufacturing process costs.
RVidia - Automatic Reverse Engineering from point clouds
into CAD models
RVidia provides a wind range of tools for reverse engineering of machine parts as well as free form objects. Advanced algorithms minimize the amount of patches and still keep the surface complexity within reasonable borders to ensure compatibility with a wide range of CAD/CAM systems. Reverse engineering process can be run fully automatically or with manual control for optimal results.
How does it work
Point clouds: You start with a point cloud. The number of points is theoretically unlimited. Practical limitations are due to system configuration and size of the available memory. With 2 Gbyte RAM you will be able to deal with point clouds up to 1,000,000 points. R-Vidia offers various tools for point cloud registration and fitting with each other. You can join a mesh with point cloud, point cloud with other point cloud, change the transformation (rotation & translation) and reverse point cloud into a mesh. Number of points can be reduced by rejecting duplicated points within a user defined tolerance or by using other decimation criteria.
Meshes: Creating a mesh from point cloud is controlled by number of parameters defining the resulting mesh quality. You control minimum triangle angle, dihedral angle and boundary definition all within specified absolute tolerance. The resulting mesh can be further analyzed to form a watertight volume (sewing) and edited on a level of triangle definition (edges, vertexes) as well as global functions such as fill hole(s). Meshes can be further smoothed using various criteria (mean filtering, angle median filtering or Laplasian flow) or simplified to the targeted amount of triangles (%) or numerical tolerance (e.g. 0.005 mm).
Patch division: The patch division process automatically finds the optimal mesh division. A feature recognition algorithm is used to automatically identify mesh parts convertible into analytical forms such as planes, cylinders, SOR (surface of revelation), sphere, torus, and cones. Those patches will be not converted into NURBS, but into analytically defined parametric surfaces. The remaining patches are then converted into NURBS. The amount of patches is controlled and will depend on the specified accuracy for the reverse engineering process. The accuracy is controlled on the patch boarders and in the middle of each patch by measuring the deviation between resulting NURBS surface and original triangulation. The objective is to produce patches fitting with each other and forming a watertight solid in the CAD system. Reverse engineering results can be overlaid with the original triangulation and point cloud to verify the results. R-Vidia is optimized to work with multiple data structure such as point cloud, mesh and parametric NURBS, resulting in high performance and ease of use.
R-Vidia is successfully used in all type of reverse engineering applications including free form parts, mechanical parts and combination of both. The application areas vary from medical, dental, mould design, architecture, construction, etc.